by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:20 AM
Electric scooters: Love or hate them? Here's what you need to know
Scooters used to be toys only for children. Their motorized descendants, however, are now popular among adults.

Last year, Americans took 38.5 million trips on shared scooters in more than 100 cities, according to the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO), a nonprofit organization. Those trips accounted for almost half of the 84 million trips – more than doubled from 2017 – taken on “shared micro-mobility” options that also include station-based bikes and dockless bikes.

As people look for ways to get around congested cities faster, scooters have gained in popularity. But their emergence has drawn criticism that the vehicles are risky both for riders and pedestrians.

Some cities, such as Chicago, launched pilot programs for sharing scooters in June, eyeing the potential to ease congestion and pollution brought by cars. Portland, Oregon, launched a 120-day pilot program last year and a one-year program this year that started in April. New York State passed a bill in June to legalize the vehicle, though renting them is prohibited in Manhattan – you have to own one to ride it.

But some cities said no, or at least not now. Last month, Chattanooga, Tennessee, issued a six-month ban of the conveyance. San Francisco and Beverly Hills once took similar approaches. Nashville's mayor called for a ban on the vehicle following the city's first scooter-related death, but the Metro Council rejected the plan - the legislative institute decided to reduce scooter fleets instead.

City officials and residents have conflicting attitudes toward electric scooter. And in many places, its regulation still falls into gray areas.

Why people love electric scooters
You can easily ride a scooter, with a top speed of 15 to 30 mph, to the nearest subway stop a mile away or other destinations 5 miles out, and travel faster than cars during rush hour. Unlike bikes, they can keep you from getting sweaty before you arrive at work or to meet friends. Many people rode scooters in childhood, which makes them familiar and appealing for commuters.

After scooter startup Bird deployed its first fleet in September 2017, bike-sharing companies Spin (acquired by Ford last November) and Lime, and ride-hailing giant Lyft and Uber dipped their toes into the scooter market by launching their own fleets last year. Other key players include Skip and Scoot, which was acquired by Bird in June.

The scooter startups have raised more than $1.5 billion in funding and the global market is expected to reach about $40 billion to $50 billion by 2025, according to Boston Consulting Group.

Scooter hazards: safety and parking
City officials opposing scooters cited safety as their major concern and worry they would block sidewalks if they were parked inappropriately, impeding pedestrians and people with disabilities.

After electric scooters were introduced, several hospitals at various locations saw spikes in scooter-related injuries at their emergency rooms. Since the fall of 2017, at least eight scooter riders have died and 1,500 have been injured, according to Consumer Reports. Emily Hartridge, a TV host and YouTube star, died after her electric scooter crashed with a truck in London. Last week, a person in Atlanta died in a crash with an oil truck while riding a scooter.

Boosted, a startup founded in 2012 that debuted with its flagship electric skateboards, is a newcomer to the market. The company touts its latest product Boosted Rev, which started shipping last month, has “vehicle-grade durability.”

Its E-scooter electric scooter has a top speed of 24 mph, can go up to 22 miles on a single charge and has three brakes, including an electronic one, according to the company. It costs $1,599, compared with Segway and Xiaomi’s scooters that range from $400 to $800.

“We've adopted a lot of the fire safety and impact and durability standards from the automotive industry for electric cars and adopted them to the standards we've built,” said Boosted’s CEO Jeff Russakow, who compared the company’s approach in electric scooters to Tesla's.

Own or share? What's next?
Experts said it is still too early to say whether sharing or owning will prevail.

"When you see that kind of adoption, it's quite attractive to find other forms of business models in order to capture some sort of share," said Zarif. He estimates that within next year, companies will come up with new forms of micro-mobility vehicles other than electric scooters to offer commuters more choices.

Fang said there might be markets for both buying and sharing. But to accommodate the electric scooter ATV and other micro-mobility options, cities need better infrastructure, he said, such as enough bike lanes, which are ideal for scooter riders who might feel unsafe riding with cars that go 25 to 40 miles per hour on main roads but would endanger pedestrians on sidewalks.

Cities are adapting fast though, Zarif argued. “It's getting there. I mean, think of it as when the first car got in the road over a hundred years ago,” he said. “The roads weren't built for the cars, but eventually they started building the right infrastructure."

Is riding an electric bike good exercise, or just convenient transportation?
It can, if you ride right, according to a pragmatic new study comparing the physiological effects of e-bikes and standard road bicycles during a simulated commute. The study, which involved riders new to e-cycling, found that most could complete their commutes faster and with less effort on electric bicycle than standard bicycles, while elevating their breathing and heart rates enough to get a meaningful workout.

But the benefits varied and depended, to some extent, on how people’s bikes were adjusted and how they adjusted to the bikes. The findings have particular relevance at the moment, as pandemic restrictions loosen and offices reopen, and many of us consider options other than packed trains to move ourselves from our homes to elsewhere.

Few people bike to work. Asked why, many tell researchers that bike commuting requires too much time, perspiration and accident risk. Simultaneously, though, people report a growing interest in improving their health and reducing their ecological impact by driving less.

In theory, both these hopes and concerns could be met or minimised with e-bikes. An alluring technological compromise between a standard, self-powered bicycle and a scooter, e-bikes look almost like regular bikes but are fitted with battery-powered electric motors that assist pedalling, slightly juicing each stroke.

With most e-bikes, this assistance is small, similar to riding with a placid tailwind, and ceases once you reach a maximum speed of about 30km/h or stop pedalling. The motor will not turn the pedals for you.

Essentially, e-bikes are designed to make riding less taxing, which means commuters should arrive at their destinations more swiftly and with less sweat. They can also provide a psychological boost, helping riders feel capable of tackling hills they might otherwise avoid. But whether they also complete a workout while e-riding has been less clear.

UK-based White Motorcycle Concepts has revealed the WMC250EV — a new, all-electric motorbike that aims to claim an EV land speed record by hitting 250 MPH with ease.

Its creator, Robert White, thinks it’ll hit 250 MPH because of some very clever aerodynamic attributes, namely the huge gaping hole that falls right in the center of the bike. Looking like an air tunnel, the “V-Air” duct encourages air to be pushed through the gap rather than around the bike like conventional motors. This design reduces drag by up to 70 percent which, again, makes the bike incredibly slippery so that it can pierce through the air at speed.

Power comes from a unique electric layout and supply, which sees the battery pack sit at the underbelly of the bike for a better center of gravity and good weight distribution. “D-Drive” powers the front wheels using two 20kWh batteries, while regenerative braking has also been incorporated to preserve wasted power from braking and using it to recharge the batteries.

As for the rear wheel, it’s powered by two 30kWh batteries, which means in total the bike has 100kWh of power — or around 134 BHP if we convert that to normal figures. Weighing just 300kg thanks to a host of lightweight components and carbon fiber elements being used for the bike and its motor, the WMC250EV now aims to take on the British and world electric land speed records — and win them.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:17 AM
When to use slip on flanges?
Slip On Flanges are preferred by some contractors, over the Weld-neck, because of the lower initial cost. However, this may be offset by the added cost of the two fillet welds required for proper installation. The strength of the slip-on flange is ample for it’s rating, but its life under fatigue conditions is considered to be only one-third that of the weld-neck flange.

The slip on flange may be attached to the end of a piece of pipe or to one or more ends of a pipe fitting. The slip-on flange is positioned so the inserted end of the pipe or fitting is set back or short of the flange face by the thickness of the pipe wall plus 1/8 of an inch. This allows for a fillet weld inside the SO flange equal to the thickness of the pipe wall without doing any damage to the flange face. The back or outside of the flange is also welded with a fillet weld.

A variation of the Slip On flange also exists. This is the Slip-On Reducing Flange. This is simply a larger (say a 14″) Slip-On flange blank that, instead of the Center (pipe) hole being cut out (or drilled out) for 14″ pipe it is cut out for a 6″ (or some other size) pipe. The SO Reducing flange is basically used for reducing the line size where space limitations will not allow the length of a weld neck flange and reducer combination. The use of the Slip-On Reducing Flange should only be used where the flow direction is from the smaller size into the larger size.

Slip On flanges or SO flanges are commonly lower in price than weld-neck flanges, and to this effect are a popular choice for our customers.

It is welded both inside and out to provide suffcient strength and prevent leakage.

Slip-on flanges are all bored slightly larger than the O.D. of the pipe. They are preferred over welding neck flanges many users due to their lower intial cost, but final intallation cost is probably not much less than that of the welding neck flange because of the additional welding involved.

Low cost installation
Less time needed to spent on ensuring the accuracy of the cut pipe
They are somewhat easier to align
The slip-on flanges have low hub because the pipe slips into the flange before welding
The flange is welded both inside and outside to provide sufficient strength
They prevent leakage

How does a WELDING NECK FLANGE work in the pipeline system?

As you know WELDING NECK FLANGES are one of the popular flange in the pipeline industries. As it have many advantages like:

1. Easy installing.

2. Not easy to change its shape.

3. High quality in sealing.

4. Wildly used.

The welding neck flanges are wildly used in Petroleum, Natural gas, Refineries, Petro-Chemical, Ship building & Paper making, Power project, Boiler fabrication etc.

Blind flanges have the face thickness of a flange, a matching face type, and similar bolting pattern. Blind flanges can also be used to seal a nozzle opening on a pressure vessel. Because it is bolted, the blind flange provides easy access to the interior of a vessel or pipe, unlike a cap that is welded. Figure 4.25 represents the drawing symbol for the blind flange.

What is plate flange?
Plate flange is also named plain flange, flat flange and slip on flange etc. A plate flange is a flat, circular disk that is welded onto the end of a pipe and allows it to be bolted to another pipe. Typically used in fuel and water pipelines, the two plate flanges will be bolted together with a gasket in between them. The plate flange will have bolt holes all around the perimeter and will be used to create junctions, tees and joints.

When building a pipeline, the length of the pipes used are not always known. By manufacturing the products separate from the plate flange, the welders can cut the pipe to length and weld a plate flange in place to join the pipes at any needed length. The plates can also be welded to the pipe on a slight bias, allowing two pipes to be joined that may not be precisely lined up.

A flange is a cast or forged steel product used to connect a pipe with another mechanical device. In the oil and gas industry, forged steel flanges are preferred due to their intrinsic strength and durability.

The key sizes for a pipe flange are:

the nominal size (i.e. the bore size of the flange, to match the bore size of the connecting pipe)

the flange rating (which designates the pressure/temperature performance of the flange, i.e. 150#, 300#, 400#, up to 2500#)

the schedule for welding neck flanges (that should match the pipe schedule)

Pipe flanges are available in multiple types, the standard ones are the welding neck, blind, socket weld, lap joint, threaded, etc.). There are also some special types of flanges, like the swivel flanges, the expander/reducer flanges, the “Nipoflange” / “Weldoflange”, and the orifice flanges.

As a general rule, welding neck, slip-on, and socket weld flanges are used for high-pressure applications that require long-lasting flanged joints. Threaded flanges can be used with a lower pressure piping system, and if vibrations are not present.

Lap joint flanges are used in connection with stub ends either to facilitate the alignment of the bolts of the two mating flanges or to reduce the cost of noble materials in high-grade flanged joints (example, in an Inconel piping system, the stub end connected to the pipe may be in Inconel, whereas the lap joint flange can be of a lower grade, thus saving the overall weight of the expensive Inconel material).

The key material grades for pipe flanges, examined in a separate article, are:

ASTM A105 (carbon steel flanges for high-temperature service)

ASTM A350 (CS flange for low temperature)

ASTM A694 (high yield carbon steel flange for line pipes)

ASTM A182 F1 to F91 (alloy steel flange)

ASTM A182 F304, F316, F321 (stainless steel flange)

ASTM A182 F51, ASTM A182 F53/55 (duplex and super duplex flange), and higher grades (Inconel, Hastelloy, Monel flange).

The pipe and the flange material shall, of course, match (according to the ASTM piping materials selection chart).

Flange Materials, General Requirements
Flanges and flanged fittings shall be castings, forgings, or plates

Bolting materials shall conform to ASME B16.5, Table 1B.

The material for flanges in the pipeline service shall be suitable for welding. The carbon equivalents of the used flanges shall match with the pipe material

Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Flanges
Gray cast iron flanges shall not be used for process piping within the battery limits of any plant. The only exception shall be for fire systems applications. The material shall be ASTM A 126, Class B.

Ductile iron flanges may be used, in proprietary systems, for example, plastic-lined steel piping, as back-up for lapped joints flanges

ASME B16.1 Class 125 and class 250 cast iron flanges may be mated with ASME B 16.5 class 150 and 300 steel flanges respectively. However, care shall be exercised to ensure that a flat-faced cast iron flange shall mate only with a flat-faced steel flange, and vice versa.

Carbon Steel Flanges
Carbon steel flanges shall not be used in services above 425 °C

High-temperature service: Standard carbon steel material shall be ASTM A 105, a material that can be safely used for temperatures between minus 29 °C and 425 °C.

Low-temperature Service: Carbon steel flanges used for services below minus 29 °C, shall conform to the impact-testing requirements of ASME B 31.3. ASTM A 350-LF2 shall be the standard material for low temperature applications

High-Yield Service: High strength carbon steel flanges ASTM A694 should fit API Std. 5L pipe Grade X42 to X65.

Low-Alloy Flanges
Material for low-alloy steel flanges (11/4 Cr – 1/2 Mo) shall be ASTM A 182-F11. Material for intermediate alloy steel flanges (11/2 Cr – 5 Mo) shall be ASTM A 182-F5.

Stainless Steel and Non-ferrous Flanges
Usually, weld neck flanges shall match the metallurgy of the pipe in any material class. Austenitic stainless steels, however, may in certain cases be interchangeable. For example, type 347 and 321 stainless steels are compatible. Flanges that are double stamped, or double graded, and are so marked. For example, low carbon grades such as 304L, and 316L may be substituted, for the ‘straight’ grade, provided that the ‘L’ grade meets the physical requirements of the application.

When pipe material is forged, weld neck flanges shall be forged. When pipe material is not forged, material for weld neck flanges shall be subject to client approval.

Non-ferrous pipe flanges (copper, cupronickel, and aluminum) are used in marine and aeronautical applications.

Pipeline Service Flanges
Flanges for pipeline service shall match SMYS, and carbon equivalency specified in ASME B31.4 and B31.8.

NACE Service Flanges
When an in-plant service has water and H2S concentrations above the limits specified in NACE MR0175, that service shall be considered as NACE service. Flanges for use in NACE service shall be in accordance with NACE MR0175 special requirements. The purchase description shall specify ‘NACE service’.

Coated, Painted and Lined Flanges
For specific applications, flanges may be coated, painted or internally lined (with Teflon, for example) to enhance the resistance of the metal to the aggression of corrosive or erosive fluids.

The ASME B16.5 specification covers flanges for piping applications up to 24 inches in diameter, whereas the ASME B16.47 specification covers pipe flanges above 24 inches (series A and B are available).

More in detail, the following ASME standards apply to main and companion flanges in pipe works:

ASME B16.1: this standard applies to integral cast iron flanges and blind flanges

ASME B16.5, Classes 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500 up to NPS 24 and class 2500 up to NPS 12. Class 400 carbon steel flanges shall not be used

Flanges larger than NPS 24 to be specified in accordance with ASME B16.47. ASME B16.47 series A for NPS 26 to NPS 60 in class 150 to 900 replaces these flange sizes in MSS SP-44

Series B replaces API 605 in sizes NPS 26 to 60 (ASME B16.47 Series B is used for pipelines and is restricted to flanges used for joints)

MSS SP-44 shall be used for steel pipeline flanges for sizes smaller than ASME B16.47 where the material grade is not listed in ASME B16.5
Flanges of unlisted materials and flanges not covered by the above standards shall be designed in accordance with ASME Section VIII Div 1, Appendix 2, and for blind flanges, in accordance with ASME Section VIII Div 1, Section UG-34

Tolerances for flanges shall be in accordance with ASME B16.5, section 7 for flanges up to NPS 24, and ASME B16.47 for flanges over NPS.

Pipe flanges for European piping systems are covered by the EN 1092-1 specification (weld neck flange type 11, plate flange type 01, blind flange type 05, threaded flange type 13).

Flanges and flanged fittings shall be marked in accordance with MSS SP-25. The following shall be included in the marking:

Pressure rating class

ASME B16 designation

Nominal pipe size

The letter ‘R’ and the corresponding ring groove number for ring joint flanges

The letters ‘PL’ shall precede the grade symbol followed by the material grade of the pipe

Type of flange facing

Schedule or wall thickness for weld-neck flanges

plate flange designs are uniform in any given size regardless of materials used to create them. This allows a 6-inch (15 cm) black pipe flange to mate perfectly with a 6-inch stainless steel flange. The plate flanges will have a serrated finish on the inside mating surface, which allows the plate to seat into the gasket material. This ensures a perfect seal between two joining pipes.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:13 AM
A Short Article on Mechanical Fasteners
A mechanical fastener is a device that is used to mechanically join (or fasten or affixes) two or more objects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints; that is, joints that can be removed or dismantled without damaging the joining components.

A welding joint or riveted joint can be termed as a permanent joint, which if required to be removed tends to damage or destruct both the joining components as well as the joint itself.

Mechanical fasteners are usually made of stainless steel, carbon steel, or alloy steel. There are many different types of mechanical fasteners being used in many different industry sectors. Some of them that are extensively being used in the process piping industry will be detailed out in this article.

Bolts are mechanical fasteners used for the assembly of two non threaded components, with the aid of washer and nut. A bolt has a head on one end and threads on the other end. When the objects are fastened, the bolt holds the objects together, and washer and nut fasten from the other end that holds it firmly.

Bolted joint is a combination of the nut applying an axial clamping force and the plain non threaded length (known as shrank) of the bolt pinning the joint against sideways shear forces. The non threaded grip length should be chosen carefully, to be around the same length as the thickness of the material and washers through which the bolt passes. An overly long non threaded length prevents the nut from being tightened down correctly. An insufficient non threaded length results in the threads extending into the hole, and places the shear load onto the threads, which may cause wear on the hole. No more than two turns of the thread should be within the hole.

Screws, similar to bolts, have head on one end and threads on the other end. However, screws usually have longer threads than bolts, also they can be made with slotted heads. Screws are used in components which contain their own thread or the screw may even cut its own internal thread into them. Screws are used to fasten objects by digging in and wedging into a material when turned, while the thread cuts grooves in the fastened material that may help pull fastened materials together and prevent pull-out.

A screw will usually have a head on one end that allows it to be turned with a tool. The head is usually larger than the body of the screw, which keeps the screw from being driven deeper than the length of the screw and to provide a bearing surface. The cylindrical portion of the screw from the underside of the head to the tip (known as the shank) may be fully threaded or partially threaded.

In the industry, Bolt and Screw are commonly mixed terms so sometimes you will see something that is called a screw or a bolt that is actually the opposite. Bolts are termed as headed fasteners consisting consistent external threads so as they would only get fitted with a non-tapered nut. On the other hand, Screws are headed; externally-threaded fasteners that don’t get fitted with a non-tapered nut and are usually get fitted into the material they generally hold. A screw must always be turned to assemble the joint whereas bolts are held fixed in place during assembly by a tool and only the corresponding nut is turned.

There are many different types of bolts and screws where each is suitable for different types of applications. The figure below shows some of the most commonly used types of bolts and screws.

Nuts are flat steel pieces, usually hexagonal in shape with internally cut threads. Nuts are almost always used in conjunction with a mating bolt to fasten multiple parts together. The two partners are kept together by a combination of their threads and compression of the parts to be held together.

The most common shape for nuts today is hexagonal, for similar reasons as the bolt head. Six sides give a good granularity of angles for a tool to approach from (good in tight spots), but more (and smaller) corners would be vulnerable to being rounded off. It takes only one sixth of a rotation to obtain the next side of the hexagon and grip is optimal.

A wide variety of nuts exists, from household hardware versions to specialized industry-specific designs that are engineered to meet various technical standards.

Bolts and nuts can be made of various materials such as steel, titanium, bronze etc. The finish or plating on a metal bolt or nut affects its look and durability. Below are some common finishes and benefits:

Zinc – Most common, low cost, resists corrosion and rust

Nickel – Very hard finish, higher investment, good corrosion resistance

Chromium – Bright finish, good rust and corrosion resistance

Chromate – Adds color, shine, superior rust resistance

Anodizing – Aluminum, hard oxide surface, excellent corrosion resistance

A washer is a thin plate (typically disk-shaped) with a hole (typically in the center) that is normally used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener, such as a bolt or nut. Washers can also relieve friction, prevent corrosion or leakage, maintain tension and may serve as a spacer. High-quality bolted joints require hardened steel washers to prevent the loss of pre-load due to permanent indentation after the torque is applied. Washers are also important for preventing galvanic corrosion, particularly by insulating steel screws from aluminium surfaces.

Washers can be categorized into three types;

Plain washers, which distribute the load to a relatively larger area minimizing the stress present in the bolt and nut while preventing damage to the surface being fixed.

Spring washers, which have axial flexibility and are used to prevent fastening or loosening due to vibrations.

Locking washers, which prevent fastening or loosening by preventing unscrewing rotation of the fastening device. Locking washers is a type of spring washer.

Anchor Bolts & Screws
Anchor Bolt is a type of heavy-duty fastener that’s designed to allow objects to be attached to concrete surface. The bolt head is usually embedded in concrete leaving the threaded end exposed. The threaded end is attached to the connecting object with the help of nuts.

Anchor bolts are used widely for foundation purposes. They are used for anchoring and erecting structures and/or industrial equipment where durability and stability is required. Concrete forms, columns, foundations and pads are the most popular mediums where anchor bolts are used.

A stud is an externally threaded headless fastener. A stud rod is threaded on both ends with a non threaded section in between. Sometimes full stud rod is also threaded with no non threaded section in between. A nut may be used on one end or both the ends. A stud is similar to a bolt but has no head. Typically studs are chamfered on both ends to allow for nuts to be screwed on. It is not necessary for the stud to have the same diameter at each end, although having the same diameter is the most common. Mostly threaded stud is used in hanging things where the length isn’t readily known until the installation has begun.

The length of stud bolt should be enough to cover entire nuts and joining objects, plus 1.5 to 3 threads exposed. Long studs must be avoided as it increases the chance of corrosion and other damage to exposed threads, which would make subsequent removal difficult. For a performance or heavy-duty application, the use of studs is preferred whenever possible instead of main cap bolts, in at-least those instances where a choice is available. Studs provide the ability to obtain much more accurate torque values because the studs don’t twist during tightening as do bolts. Because the studs remain stationary during nut tightening, the studs stretch in one axis alone, providing much more even and accurate clamping forces. Also, because the use of studs results in less wear applied to the block’s threads, this extends the life of the threaded holes in the block over periods of servicing/rebuilding.

Stud bolts are used in a number of industrial applications to join parts, equipment, flanges and permanent fixtures. They are available in a wide range of sizes and lengths, in double end and tap end configurations. They are also available with full body and cut thread bolts. U-Bolt-It’s stud bolts are strong, reliable and high performing.

Double-end Studs, have equal-length threads on each end to accommodate a nut. Length of stud is measured overall. Double-end studs are used for flange bolting or other applications where torching from both ends is necessary or desirable.

Tap-end Studs, have threads with unequal thread engagement length, called the tap end. This end is for screwing into a tapped hole. The other or nut end is threaded. Length of the stud is measured overall.

Fasteners Selection Criteria
When selecting a product for industrial applications, it is important to consider a variety of factors. Few of them all listed below.

Material of construction (stainless steel, carbon steel, or alloy steel).

Materials to be joined.

Environment, including temperature, water exposure, and potentially corrosive elements.

The applied load on the fastener.

The stiffness of the fastener.

Special process conditions (special coatings or plating).

Installation process.


Weight restrictions.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:09 AM
Transparent Acrylic Furniture – The Epitome of Style and Strength
Acrylic furniture is slowly becoming a modern home décor trend, and it’s not going away anytime soon. Furniture does not only serve as a piece of decoration statement in the home, but it also goes a long way in providing necessary comfort when it’s needed. Home improvements and interior ideas make the home appealing and stylish. One cannot imagine what the inner space of every home will look like without stylish furniture.

However, having a trendy and neat furniture setting comes at a specific price, and this price usually proves too heavy for most homeowners. This price comes in the form of renovating your home from time to time. There’s a viable alternative that offers style, comfort as well as ease of maintenance, and this alternative is acrylic furniture material.

The transparent acrylic furniture material is a futuristic and durable material that’s starting to gain huge following due to its enhanced durability. Furthermore, its design, as well as uniqueness, sets it apart from every other furniture in the market. This article takes a look at those cogent reasons why transparent acrylic furniture is particularly suitable to make your homestay stylish and special.

It will blend well with every section of your home
Acrylic material is one material you can never go wrong with, especially when it comes to creating a perfect blend of colors. Gone are the days when you had to brainstorm about which material would suit each corner of your living room and other areas of your house. The transparent acrylic material is crystal clear, and this makes it a perfect backdrop for any color you decide to use. Furthermore, the material works perfectly as a backdrop in the kitchen, bedroom, and halls. Moreover, you can always contrast the curtains and walls against the furniture to create a unique setting. Also, checkout the 3D pens reviewed here and create something to complement your furniture.

It doesn’t require much maintenance
Acrylic furniture makes cleaning routine quite straightforward in your home. You no longer have to go through the stress of using different solutions to get rid of a stain or even bother about getting acrylic paint for furniture in your home. A single wipe gets the job done.

The lightweight nature of these acrylic furniture parts allows you to move the furniture from a place to another. As acrylic furniture isn’t prone to breaking, it is ideal for situations where there are likely to be accidents.

Portability and mobility
Most custom acrylic furniture is quite lightweight, and this makes them unique. Most people stress themselves when it comes to lifting and moving furniture. The lightweight nature of this furniture material means you can change their position, as per your needs. You could even use acrylic outdoor furniture for outdoor occasions and events when the need arises.

Acrylic furniture materials do not break easily, and this makes them quite ideal for homes with little kids. Despite the lightweight nature of the material, it retains a considerable amount of toughness. You can rest assured of using your transparent acrylic furniture for a long while due to its durability.

How Do I Choose the Best Acrylic Vase?
Those who want to choose the best acrylic vase for a residential space or other area can find superior options by evaluating the durability and strength of design along with other criteria. Online shopping has made looking for these sorts of items much easier, where the individual shopper has access to an abundant array of information sources. This can help consumers assess different acrylic vase models, and pick the best ones for any use.

One essential step in choosing acrylic vases is to figure out how the vase is made. Some acrylic vase models are sturdier than others. Shoppers can consider the thickness of the acrylic product to see how well it will stand up to pressure.

In addition to thickness, those who read about the various acrylic resin materials can figure out which ones are most likely to endure high traffic and high wear, or meet other needs such as the degree of transparency or opaqueness. A variety of branded materials exist, each with its own characteristics, which can be fashioned into durable, useful vases and other containers.

Another important item for picking an acrylic vase is to choose by color scheme and style. Not all of the products made from these materials are transparent. Some may be single-color creations, and others may blend transparent surfaces with strips or blocks of color. Look for the acrylic vase that matches an indoor space, as there are many to choose from.Shoppers can also figure out which acrylic vase designs will best complement a space by evaluating ease of use. One issue is figuring out how well the vase will hold a certain amount of flowers. For example, in a professional floral context, a shop that puts together a lot of large flower arrangements will need vases that accommodate this, where thinner, smaller models may not work well. Users also need to consider how easy the item will be to clean, and how likely it is to be knocked over by children, if this is a concern.

By knowing about the kinds of materials that make acrylic vases, and learning about the various manufacturers offering these products, a shopper can find the ideal acrylic vase designs for any use, from a home centerpiece to a large-scale decorating project for a commercial space. Some acrylic vases also come with warranties or guarantees of longevity. The documentation that a buyers gets from the manufacturer is often helpful in evaluating acrylic vase models.

The Best Acrylic Coffee Tables
Acrylic coffee table is perfect for adding style to your space without a lot of visual weight. I’m sharing my favorite acrylic coffee tables, including the one I chose for my own home!

I’m brewing up some plans for a few room makeovers and as I was searching online for a couple of specific furniture pieces, I found myself falling for all of the gorgeous acrylic & lucite furniture that’s out there right now. Such beautiful stuff! I figured you all would love it as much as I do so thought I’d share some of the acrylic eye candy that I came across, focusing on my favorite acrylic coffee tables (post includes affiliate links – disclosure statement available.

Acrylic coffee tables are perfect for adding style to your space without a lot of visual weight. I’m sharing my favorite acrylic coffee tables, including the one I chose for my own home!

I’m brewing up some plans for a few room makeovers and as I was searching online for a couple of specific furniture pieces, I found myself falling for all of the gorgeous acrylic & lucite furniture that’s out there right now. Such beautiful stuff! I figured you all would love it as much as I do so thought I’d share some of the acrylic eye candy that I came across, focusing on my favorite acrylic coffee tables (post includes affiliate links – disclosure statement available.

Do Acrylic Coffee Tables Scratch Easily?
If you’re worried about your acrylic table scratching, know that while the table frame is acrylic, the top surface of most these acrylic tables (including mine) is glass. Mine has worn beautifully so if you’re concerned about scratches I’d recommend buying one with a glass top. The acrylic sides and legs of our coffee table are essentially scratch fee after years of use but if your coffee table is going to have to withstand more abuse (like little kids that are going to run play cars up the legs of it), acrylic might not be the best choice for you because it does scratch more easily than wood.

How Do You Clean Acrylic?
You just have to be careful about cleaning acrylic because if you clean with amonia-based glass cleaner, it can cause the acrylic to get cloudy and will ruin your beautiful furniture piece. I typically clean the acrylic portions of my coffee table with nothing more than a damp microfiber cloth. If you need more of a deep clean, a mild soap and water mix (followed by wiping off with plain water) does the job. You can also buy cleaners that are specially made for acrylic surfaces such as that can be used on everything from aquariums to electronics or coffee tables.

Best Acrylic Furniture Pieces That Can Fit In Any Type Of Space
Acrylic furniture is in high demand these days and for good reason. Acrylic furniture products are very durable, easy to clean and UV resistant which means they don’t fade when left in the sun. They’re also non-toxic and thus less harmful to the environment than plastic products. It also seems that scratches and marks on the surface of acrylic furniture products are easier to remove than in the case of wooden pieces or other kinds. Of course, if they’re deep enough the scratches will remain there forever. The most important element however is the aspect, the unique aesthetic that sets acrylic (or plexiglass as it’s sometimes referred to as) apart from every other type of furniture.

Acrylic chairs are really cool because they don’t obstruct the view in any way and that’s something you can really take advantage of. Transparent chairs such as this one are perfect for small dining rooms because they don’t make it seem cluttered. You can also add them to lots of other areas such as the living room, bedroom, office and other spaces. The Casper chairs are very versatile and really great for contemporary interiors. You can also take them outside on the patio or use them for backyard events. They’re stackable, easy to clean, strong and sturdy.

Tray is a flat, shallow container or receptacle made of wood, metal, etc., usually with slightly raised edges, used for carrying, holding, or displaying articles of food, glass, china, etc. a removable receptacle of this shape in a cabinet, box, trunk, or the like, sometimes forming a drawer.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:06 AM
The many uses of fruit and vegetable powders
Next-level nutrition

The growing need for clean label products is a broad demand but a real one. According to Nielsen, clean label products have been the biggest growth drivers of the packaged food and beverage industry in the past five years. Fruit powders can help slim down ingredient labels and increase wellness claims as they are natural and retain many of their built-in health advantages.

“Fruit powders have been used in baked goods for quite some time,” said Brigham Sikora, research, development and applications director, Bakery, Kerry. “The innovation we are seeing currently and some of the uses we are trying to explore are using our vegetable and fruit powders to add claims of servings of fruits or vegetables in the final product. In some cases, we are also able to label just the fruit or vegetable in the ingredient declaration with no other additives.”

Kerry’s portfolio of powders includes a range of fruits, vegetables and specialty varieties such as honey, maple syrup and balsamic vinegar and have been applied to cookies, muffins and donuts as an added health component.

“Traditionally, fruit powders have been used in bakery items to add flavor and in some cases color,” Mr. Lutomski said. “But recent trends look for more than just taste, color and ease-of-use; these trends are looking for ingredients with inherent functional benefits and clean labels.”

The advantages of produce powders can be seen in scientific studies as well as countless consumer trends. For example, a 2016 study performed at the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center involving adults who had mild cognitive impairment — a risk condition for Alzheimer’s disease — revealed that participants given the powdered equivalent of a cup of blueberries vs. a placebo powder had improved cognitive performance and brain function compared with those who took the placebo. The blueberry group also demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts. As these studies reveal health benefits, powders instead of other fillers could be used to leverage these research-based claims and target consumers searching for specific benefits.

Welch’s Concord Fruit Powder is packed with a wide variety of polyphenols. The polyphenols found in concord grapes have been shown to help support a healthy heart and early research indicates they also provide enhanced cognitive function. The fruit & vegetable powder format has a denser concentration of the polyphenols allowing it to have a real effect on products.

“The baker will need to determine what claims they are comfortable making, but Welch’s will gladly share its research to help our customer make that decision,” Mr. Lutomski said.

Another factor to consider is the growing desire among millennials for snacks loaded with vital minerals, nutrients and vitamins. “Snacking Motivations and Attitudes US 2015,” a recent report by Mintel, revealed they are more likely than older generations to buy snacks with added nutritional benefits such as high fiber, energizing claims or protein content.

Kate Leahy, spokesperson for Sunsweet Ingredients, noted that Sunsweet’s new Dried Plum Powder’s most common use so far has been in bars with a health positioning. The powder, composed of 99% dried prune plums, imparts the digestive benefits found in prunes and contains high levels of powerful antioxidants. She added that the powder may be used in place of flaxseed, rice bran or citrus fiber for boosting fiber content. It also may replace 50% of inulin or maltodextrin allowing for reductions in sugar and salt.

FutureCeuticals offers manufacturers the ability to deliver a clean label with substantiated U.S.D.A. serving claims through its line of TruServ Organic Whole Food Powders that offer fruit and vegetable serving claims based on U.S.D.A. My Plate. Each claim has been verified by FutureCeuticals’ exclusive method of validation that connects its extensive production data and the U.S.D.A. Nutritional database.

Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. The herbal extracts, as a whole or part, have been used for various ailments of the skin, hair, and dental care for overall appearance. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient to take care of skin and others body parts, it requires association of active ingredients to check the damage and ageing of the skin. Herbal cosmetics have gained much popularity among the population. Herbal cosmetics products claimed to have efficacy and intrinsic acceptability due to routine use in daily life and avoid the side effects which are commonly seen in synthetic products. Due to the awareness of the environmental damage caused by industrialization, a trend has developed to use products with natural ingredients. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, sub chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, and photo toxicity by the usage of synthetic products that’s why today’s generation prefers herbal cosmetics for hair, skin and dental care. This review attempts and emphasizes the benefits of herbal extracts in cosmetics.

The Rise Of Functional Ingredients
The use of dietary supplements has grown over the years because of increased media attention for health issues. By Shikhar Aggarwal, Senior Director—Chemicals, Materials and Nutrition, APAC, Frost & Sullivan.

Functional foods are typically classified as traditional foods that have been enriched with an ingredient (bioactive in many cases) that is able to provide additional benefits to human health. These days, a functional ingredient does not have a strict definition, however, they are broadly considered as ingredients that have the potential to influence health over and above their basic nutritional value. These ingredients can be obtained from a variety of sources such as primary produce, marine sources, microorganisms as well as inorganic raw materials. Many of these functional ingredients can also be used for the preparation of nutraceuticals which include food & beverage products as well as dietary supplements.

Nutritional and functional food ingredients can typically be classified from a source, type or health perspective. For example, from a health perspective, they can be divided into eye health, digestive health, heart health, and women’s health ingredients and so on.

Eye health ingredients cover astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta carotene etc.

Digestive health ingredients cover probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes etc.

Heart health ingredients cover soy proteins, beta glucan, omega 3 etc.

Women’s health ingredients include iron, calcium, vitamin D, soy isoflavones, cranberry extracts and so on

The use of dietary supplements such as vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, carotene, calcium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), dietary fibre, and antioxidants has grown over the years because of increased media attention for issues such as obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD). This media attention had increased consumer awareness for health and wellness trends.

There are many trends, drivers and challenges in the industry that have been observed through the various studies conducted by our Wellness Ingredients team.

Various studies conducted by Frost & Sullivan have highlighted the benefits of using different nutritional and functional ingredients in food and beverages, resulting in an increased awareness of these ingredients among end users.

Nutritional ingredients are generally perceived as safe, and this assumption of safety has been used for branding purposes. Because end users are aware of nutritional benefits and consider food safety important, food and beverage producers are positioning their products to reflect the health advantages that their ingredients engender. Increasing competition among nutritional and functional food ingredients participants has led to proactive marketing, which caters to the demand of both end users and food and beverage producers for ingredients with additional health benefits.

Our studies have also revealed that consumers purchase products with nutritional and functional ingredients for their preventative, rather than curative, claims. Indeed, the fortification of products through nutritional and functional ingredients is necessary to prevent some human disorders and conditions. Technological advances have helped to identify which ingredients would enhance fortification, creating further opportunities for stressing the health benefits of nutritional and functional foods.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 01:00 AM
Everything About Electric Jacks: What Are The Pros And Cons?
Have you ever heard of electric jacks? No ? Well, now you will.

You see those machines that lift and move cars, pallets or any equipment? Those are called Jacks. Jacks are a mechanical device made for lifting heavy things or to apply a great force. There are many types of jacks, you’ve got mechanical ones, hydraulic ones and so many more.

Mechanical ones work thanks to a screw thread, hydraulic ones work using hydraulic power each one has its own pros and cons. But in this article, you’ll find out everything about electric jacks, their types, their pros, and their cons.

Floor jacks

A floor jack is a type of jacks that help you lift a part of any vehicle, it enables you to perform repairs easily on your vehicle, and you can usually find them in car shops or any repair shop.

So if you’re a car shop and still wondering what type of floor jacks should you buy this guide would help you find out.

Electric car jacks

Electric car jacks are equipment used to lift your vehicle. How many times did you suffer from a flat tire or a leaking pipe and wished you had a car jack on you? I bet it’s a number of times. Many people just in case of an emergency, buy and store portable electric jacks for times of needs in their vehicles.

These inventions help you lift your car in a matter of minutes. They help you get underneath your car to do what you’ve got to do with all the support you need. For you to own these devices doesn’t oblige you to be a handyman. Anyone can own an electric car jack just in case of any problem with their vehicles.

Pros: They’re easy to use, they sometimes come with a kit that includes pump and wrench, they include a durable case for tools, they aren’t heavy and they can be portable, they don’t take much space and can be stored in your vehicle.

Cons: They can be quite pricy, most of these car jacks don’t have great longevity, some don’t handle heavy weight, some have short heights and they can even experience leaking.

If you’re wondering now which electric jack to get then see these electric car jacks here would be the answer.

Electric pallet jacks

These ones are used for moving pallets and for low-level lifting, they are also known as walkies, power jacks, electric pallet trucks and so on. They’re mostly used in warehouses or in big storage facilities where there are so many heavy things stored.

They contain a place for the operator and user to stand on so they can control it when moving things. They’re supposed to ease the process of lifting things in storage rooms. Their front wheels are usually mounted inside the end of their forks. When used, the forks get separated from the front wheels vertically

Pros: Easy to use thanks to the electric drive, they’re efficient, produce no noise, don’t pollute, they’re flexible and simple; you don’t have to an expert to handle them.

Cons: daily maintenance, electronic control, pricy, has a lot of accessories.

Electric tongue jacks

Now this is the jack for campers, trailers, and even boats! It’s used to raise and lower these means of transportation. How do they work?

For example: Jack is used to support and lift a camper’s tongue and keep it leveled up even when it’s not attached to the tow vehicle.

Pros: Gives you less work and it’s easy to use especially for older people and for those who suffer from shoulder pain.

Cons: It’s expensive, doesn’t last long, can be broken easily.

Electric jacks are very important especially if you’re getting older, or suffer from shoulder pain which is becoming a more common problem between the majority of people. Electric jacks make everything easier which is why you should consider owning one.

Having a car jack in your vehicle in case of an emergency can mean the difference between 20 minutes to change a flat tire and being stranded on the road for hours, waiting for help. Whether you go off-road with your vehicle and need to lift it frequently, or just want something in case of an emergency, we’re here to help you find the best electric car jack for your needs.

Why Buy an Electric Car Jack?
Add to your tool collection. No matter what skill level you have when it comes to vehicle maintenance, having an automatic car electric jack can be handy to have around. As part of a basic set of automotive tools, the power car jack can be used on most cars, boats, trailers, and off-road vehicles.

Prepare for an emergency. Just like an LED road flare kit, a flashlight, some spare water bottles, and non-perishable food items, a SUV electric jack could be a great way to round out your emergency preparedness kit. If you can purchase a carrying case with everything inside, it’s as simple as placing the unit in your car’s trunk.

Replace your old/manual jack. Electric car jacks relieve the physical strain of cranking a manual jack and shorten the overall repair time dramatically. If it’s time to invest in a new model that will do the job right and get you home safe, check out the electric car jack as an option.

At-home auto repair. Whether it’s early in your mechanic career or you’re a weekend wrencher, having an electric car jack on hand means you can spend more of your time tooling around on the rest of the car and less time cranking a manual jack.

Electric Car Jack Types
This type of jack is usually hydraulic-powered and resembles the shape of a short and stubby bottle. Because of this compact design, they’re desirable for larger vehicles where clearance isn’t necessarily an issue. Though they’re not ergonomically shaped for easy storage, they do often have a higher weight limit than your typical electric floor jack.

You’ll likely see a lot of mechanics using—and owning—this type of car jack. Though it’s manually operated, it works on the same basic principle as all jacks; it uses a mounting point and a lifting system to hold the car during a lift. Floor jacks typically roll on four wheels and come with a detachable handle that pivots up and down to lift the car.

Scissor jacks are the typical design of most standard equipment units that come installed in your car directly from the factory. These specific jacks can either be manually operated or electric. Most scissor jacks place the weight in the center of the jack itself while the arms extend to lift the weight, creating a triangular or diamond-like shape when extended. These units are typically very heavy and durable.

You may or may not be familiar with the use of large air bags to lift a vehicle “in the field,” as they say. Many enthusiasts who off-road use these inflatable air bags to buoy the weight of the car onto what is basically a large air mattress or pillow. Many of these units are even inflatable via the car’s own exhaust, so there’s no power directly involved.

This type of jack is almost exclusively used for trailers. Sometimes, it’s difficult to raise the trailer high enough to get the hitch ball into position, especially when the trailer is loaded down. Having a tongue jack on hand means you can raise the trailer height and keep it in position as you back up to couple them together. This is a great electric jack to have for any kind of trailer out there.

Top Electric Car Jack Brands
Headquartered in Wilsonville, Oregon, Husky Towing Products has been in the truck accessory business for over seven years. Their 3,000-pound capacity power jack is a viable option for those looking to invest in an electric trailer jack for all their towing needs.

Founded in 1996 by Wang’s International, Pilot Automotive’s mission has been to serve the DIY auto enthusiast in a variety of ways. Though the company is headquartered in California, anyone can find their products online, including this 12-volt electric scissor car jack.

Auto Body Now (ABN) might still be new to the aftermarket auto accessory game, but they’re a family-owned company based out of South Dakota that’s dedicated to an above-average experience. They manufacture quite a variety of tools for the automotive industry, but we think you should check out their three-in-one hydraulic power floor jack kit.

An Electric Hydraulic Jack Kit Is An All-In-One Solution For A Quick Tire Change
Over the past few weeks we looked at tools you can use to help remove rounded bolts and tools that can reach tight spots. This week’s tools, electric hydraulic jack kits, help you jack up your car, remove wheels, replace wheels and inflate tires all with one simple box.
Last week, reader knowonelse suggested a quality floor jack as a tool every wrencher should have. I absolutely agree. I don’t go anywhere without a floor jack and a cordless impact in case I need to do a roadside wheel swap. Floor jacks are quicker and more stable than scissor jacks.

For today’s entry I was going to show you a sweet video of jacks being tested to destruction, but instead this video caught my eye. The Chris Does What YouTube channel tested an Electric Hydraulic Jack Kit.

Admittedly, I was skeptical. Why would I want to use a 12-volt jack instead of my trusty floor jack? But I didn’t know about the kit’s multiple features. In addition to the jack, it also works as an impact wrench, good for around 250 ft-lb, and a tire inflator. In a followup video made two years later, Chris said he had successfully lifted some 100 vehicles with the jack, so it sounds like they can be reasonably reliable.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 12:57 AM
An Overview of Options and their Application
The doctor blade appears to be a simple component of the flexographic printing process but, as often is the case, appearances can be deceiving. The casual user might wonder what is there to think about, a blade is only a piece of steel or plastic. To better understand the need for all of the doctor blade options, consider the role of the doctor blade.
Flexographic printing requires the Dr blade to provide a constant wipe throughout the pressrun, so that the ink volume carried by the anilox roll to the plate is determined only by the anilox volume. If the doctor blade is not working correctly, the ink volume carried to the plate will include the anilox roll volume, plus some amount of surface ink Any sur-face ink remaining on the anilox roll will be variable and lead to variation in the printed product. To achieve constant wipe, different materials and edge profiles are available so that you can better match a doctor blade to the application.
Years ago, there were only a few choices for doctor blade materials and profiles. Today, the offering of materials, edge profiles, and added coatings has become so extensive that the converter often needs help from a doctor blade supplier to determine the best blade for the application. This article will take some of the mystery out of choosing a doctor blade by providing an overview of the features of the various doctor blade materials and configurations along with generalized application guidance.

Long before doctor blades were used in flexographic printing, blades made from various types of steel had been used in other printing processes. Today, steel is still the material of choice for high quality and repeatable doctoring results in any printing process. There are bright and blue carbon steels, stainless steel, long life steel, coated steel, and ceramics. But which steel is right for you?
First of all, bright and blue carbon steels are identical materials that share the same metallurgical properties and features. The only difference between the two is the cosmetic blue oxide process that is applied to the steel. It has been rumored that blue steel was originally chosen for doctor blades, so that when a converter was making a blade by hand shaping a bevel, he could easily see the bevel he was making as the blue color was removed. Today, most converters are not making their own blades, so the advantage of blue steel doesn’t apply anymore.
Carbon steel blades are economical choices when used with short-run process jobs on non-porous substrates and inks that aren’t very abrasive. They can be used on all anilox screens along with solvent, water, and some UV inks. If corrosion is an issue, a stainless steel blade may be a better choice, but use caution when using stainless steel blades with ceramic anilox rolls as some stainless steel materials have been associated with plugged anilox cells through adhesive wear.
Long-life steel blades are excellent for use with abrasive inks, such as white inks or other inks with high percentages of titanium dioxide, or solids and/or rough anilox rolls. Long-life steels are typically made from tool steel alloys that offer good resistance to adhesive wear. Adhesive wear is a welding like effect that quickly causes blades to fail and is also a contributor to anilox roll scoring. Long-life blades are more expensive than carbon or stainless steel blades, but the benefits they provide easily justify their added costs when compared to press down time for blade changes during a run and scored anilox roll repair costs.
Coatings can be applied to steel blades to further extend their life and the life of the anilox roll. A coating will lower the coefficient of friction between the blade and anilox roll, resulting in a clean wipe at lower pressures. However, the metal used in a coated blade has to be the same high quality steel as an uncoated blade, or the blade will not function properly. Another advantage with coated blades is that they typically offer enhanced corrosion resistance. Try a coated blade in your application if you are looking for a little more life, less corrosion, or a cleaner wipe than you are currently getting from your uncoated blade.
Ceramic blade technology will yield the longest life and comes at the highest cost of all blade materials. Ceramic blades are typically used with very abrasive inks or where you are running four-color process work every day with standardized setups. Other applications may include varnish or coating applications and corrugated applications, where it could take hours to change a blade.
All of the metal blades discussed can be used for doctoring applications as well as containment in dual blade flexographic chambers. Metal blades can vary in thickness from 0.004 in. to 0.020 in. and even thicker in some cases. Typical blade thicknesses are either 0.006 in. or 0.008 in. with more demanding applications requiring the use of 0.010 in. or 0.012 in. thick blades. blades are typically used with very abrasive inks or where you
are running four-color process work every day with standardized setups. Other applications may include varnish or coating applications and corrugated applications, where it could take hours to change a blade. All of the metal blades discussed can be used for doctoring applications as well as containment in dual blade flexographic chambers. Metal blades can vary in thickness from 0.004 in. to 0.020 in. and even thicker in some cases. Typical blade thicknesses are either 0.006 in. or 0.008 in. with more demanding applications requiring the use of 0.010 in. or 0.012 in. thick blades.

tips for better finishing with steel brushes
Steel wire brushes are a common and essential tool in any metal fabrication shop. These brushes can be used for a variety of applications, including weld cleaning, deburring, rust and oxide removal, surface preparation, and surface finishing.

One reason wire brushes are so widely used is that, unlike solid abrasive wheels, steel filaments will not remove base material or change part dimensions. Wire brushes clean surfaces in the same manner as sandblasting, except that rather than particles of sand colliding with the work surface, wire tips make contact with the workpiece. The combination of good-quality, hardened steel wire tips with the energy of high surface speeds enables the brushes to separate surface contaminants from base material.

Steel brush also is versatile, with many different configurations available to meet the requirements of each application. For example, brushes with long filaments are conformable and able to follow contoured surfaces, and short trim brushes are fast-acting and suited for severe applications. Another variable is the fill density: Low-density brushes offer good flexibility for surface cleaning operations on irregular surfaces, and high-density brushes produce a fast brushing action and long brush life.

In addition, steel brushes are nonloading. In other words, they do not become clogged with particles and debris when used to remove paint and similar coatings.

Perhaps because wire brushes are such a familiar item, they are easy to overlook and often receive insufficient attention. However, five tips can help you improve the performance and life span of your wire brushes.

1. Use the Highest Safe Speed
Power wire brushes, like cutting tools, operate most effectively when the speed and pressure of the operation properly match the demands of the application. In most operations, using the highest speed with the lightest possible pressure will ensure the fastest brushing action and longest brush life.

Increasing brush speed to the highest safe speed increases the face stiffness and brushing action. A fine-wire brush rotating at a high speed often produces the same results as a coarse-wire brush rotating at a slow speed, but it generally lasts longer. Therefore, you will achieve the lowest production costs by using the finest wire that will do the job.

If the brush speed is insufficient, frustrated operators typically apply more pressure (see Figure 1). However, excessive pressure causes overbending of the filaments and heat buildup, resulting in filament breakage, rapid dulling, and reduced brush life.

Instead of applying greater pressure, try using a brush with more aggressive action, such as one with a larger filament diameter and/or a shorter filament trim length, or one with a knot type instead of crimped wire. Or you can try increasing brush surface speed by increasing rotations per minute (RPM) or brush diameter.

You'll need to determine the correct operating speed for each application. For safety, it is imperative never to exceed the maximum safe free speed (MSFS) or RPM rating that the manufacturer publishes for each type of brush.

Safety Considerations for Robotic Cleaning Machines
This year, facilities are using automatic floor scrubbers 24% more than they were last year1 to meet a higher demand for cleaning. As facilities continue to invest in robotic cleaning machine, and more new technology arrives on the market, safety is top of mind. It will continue to be important to maintain the strictest safety measures in the way buildings are cleaned as well as how autonomous cleaning machines are programmed, operated and maintained. This toolkit will address safety issues introduced by the adoption of robotic cleaning machines and some of the standard operating procedures, protocol and features that can help improve safety.

A closer look at OSHA’s guidelines for robotics safety
The Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) has been training inspectors to look for robotic safety issues in all sectors of industry for the past three decades2.

More recently, OSHA published Guidelines for Robotics Safety, a technical manual intended for operators to learn more about potential hazards as they work together with robotic machinery. According to this guide, OSHA categorizes the six most common causes of robotic safety hazards:

Human errors

Control errors

Unathorized access

Mechanical hazards

Environmental hazards

Electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic power sources

With these categories in mind, we’ve prepared the following recommendations to help equipment purchasers and facility maintenance workers find autonomous cleaning machines that have the necessary safeguards in place to ensure a safe working environment between humans and robots.

Conduct a risk assessment.
A risk assessment is the cornerstone of any new work plan that involves robotic machinery, including autonomous cleaning equipment. Work with your cleaning equipment distributor or directly with your technology manufacturer to perform a full risk assessment prior to investing in a robotic cleaning machine. Licensed distributors of advanced robotics technology should have a proven risk assessment plan they can guide you through, considering your specific needs, facility type and workforce to completely assess all risk.

Your risk assessment will aim to pinpoint foreseeable hazards and relevant hazardous conditions that may arise when you introduce a robotic cleaning machine into your facility.

Based on OSHA’s six causes of safety issues, your risk assessment should focus on:

Startup and programming procedures

Environmental conditions

Location of the robot

Requirements for corrective tasks

Human error

Possibility of robot malfunctions

The risk assessment process will help determine the appropriate type of functional safety controls needed to reduce risk to an acceptable level. All findings brought about by your risk assessment should be written in a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that will be incorporated into your facility plan and training programs and should be accessible to anyone who may interact with the machine.

As a good manufacturer, we also provide other products.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 12:51 AM
Why use a master alloy?
What is a master alloy and how is it different from a traditional alloy? And why is the use of master alloys so important in the field of jewelry? We find out in this article.

Most of the alloys in our catalog fall under the definition of master alloy and the question of what exactly is meant by this definition may arise.

An alloy is a compound made up of two or more elements, of which at least one is a metal. The characteristics of an alloy such as hardness, strength and even color are generally different from those of the elements that constitute it, for example copper and tin, both relatively soft, form the more resistant bronze.

A master alloy is a particular type of alloy designed to be added to a pure metal, in our case gold or silver, in order to modify its characteristics. A pre-master alloy is a master alloy from which a fundamental element has been subtracted. In our field, it is generally a master alloy from which silver was stolen for logistical reasons.

Why it is necessary to use a master alloy?
Most pure metals are not suitable for technical applications. Pure gold, for example, is extremely soft; this feature makes it easily workable and is one of the reasons for its success in jewelry, but a jewel made of pure gold would easily bend if treated without too much care and would not have sufficient wear resistance. The same considerations apply to silver. For this reason, pure gold is generally transformed into a gold alloy, according to the standard proportions indicated in twenty-fourths, or carats (K).

Until the Second World War, the most popular alloys were mainly formed by three elements: Gold, Silver and Copper.

With the evolution of technique, jewelry has required increasingly specialized performance from alloys, this has led to the need to study the use of new elements to be added to precious metals, which are able to drastically change their characteristics. So we went from having alloys composed of two or three elements, to new formulations that come to contain even 10, effectively increasing the complexity of the product.

What characteristics can a master alloy act on?

Once added to the precious metal, a master alloy can affect:

A feature especially requested by users of gold, whose color can be changed to pink, gray-white or various shades of yellow.

Perhaps the most important feature, as gold and silver are relatively soft when in their pure state. The hardness is controlled through the master alloys both directly, with the simple addition of alloying elements, and indirectly, making the precious metal capable of undergoing hardening heat treatments.

Melting temperature
it is another important parameter that in some applications it is useful to be able to control. Suppose we need to weld a joint, to do this we can use a particular alloy, which must melt at a lower temperature than the metal that forms the edges of the joint, in this way we will perform a particular type of welding called brazing.

The control of the melting temperature is also important in the case of casting with wax setting of stones, where too high a temperature of the metal could irreparably damage the stones.

Size of the crystalline grain
Using some elements called grain refiners it is possible to make the internal structure of the metal more compact, this greatly improves some aesthetic and technological aspects, we talked about i.

Fluidity is an important factor especially in investment casting applications. It can be described as the ability of a liquid metal to faithfully fill an elaborately shaped pattern, such as a grid or filigree.

Generally, the fluidity of precious metals increases as the casting temperature increases, but this can cause some side effects, such as interference between metal and refractory material, or evaporation of low-melting alloy elements. To overcome these problems, some elements, such as silicon, can be inserted in the master alloys for investment casting, which are able to increase the fluidity in the liquid state of the metal. In this article we have talked in detail about the role of silicon in investment casting alloys.

FeZr Master Alloys
The ferro zirconium 80% master alloy is employed in the ferrous metal industry. Zirconium is a strong grain refiner and denitrifier, a powerful deoxidizer and also acts as an excellent sulfide shape controller. Appropriate additions of zirconium enhance impact resistance, yield strength and the hardenability of steels.

In addition, the alloy can be utilized as a zirconium additive and serves as a beneficial trace element in cobalt and nickel-based super alloys wherein iron does not have a detrimental influence.

Applications of FeZr Master Alloys
FeZr serves as a grain refiner in steel and cast iron

FeZr is used in carbide formation, desulphurisation, deoxidation, nitrogen scavenging

Ferro-Zirconium or more accurately, Zirconium-Iron (80% Zr: 20% Iron), is a master alloy used in the production of stainless steels, special steels and some cobalt and nickel-base superalloys. As with copper-zirconium, this master alloy is a means by which Zirconium is added to an alloy.

Zirconium is a strong grain refiner but also acts as a ‘getter’ of nitrogen, sulphides and oxides while aiding carbide formation. The addition of Zirconium improves impact resistance, yield strength and hardenability (a measure of the capacity of steel to be hardened in depth when quenched from its austenitic temperature).

At Lipmann Walton & Co Ltd, we commission production of 5x50mm FeZr lumps through our partners. We focus on tin-free FeZr by carefully controlling the Zirconium raw materials selected for re-melting, though tin-bearing FeZr is also available.

Ferro-Zirconium master alloy can be easily confused with ferro silicon zirconium, with dramatic effects. It is thought that a contributing factor in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill could have been the misuse of FeSiZr alloy instead of FeZr, which would have weakened components in the pipework. FeSiZr contains less than half the Zirconium content of FeZr master alloy.

Recent novel applications of special steels made with FeZr are exploited in certain amorphous alloy formulations. These applications are industrial hardware components for civil and marine construction, plant boiler tubes, gears and so forth as well as protective coatings for industrial machinery such as pipelines.

Why using rare metals to clean up the planet is no cheap fix
WE REAP seven times as much energy from the wind and 44 times as much energy from the sun as we did a decade ago. Is this good news? Guillaume Pitron, a French journalist and documentary maker, isn’t sure.

He is neither a climate sceptic nor a fan of inaction. But as the world moves to adopt a target of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, Pitron worries about the costs. The figures in his book The Rare Metals War are stark. Changing the energy model means doubling the production of rare metals about every 15 years, mostly to satisfy demand for non-ferrous magnets and lithium-ion batteries. “At this rate,” writes Pitron, “over the next 30 years we… will need to mine more mineral ores than humans have extracted over the last 70,000 years.”

Before the Renaissance, humans had found uses for seven metals. During the industrial revolution, this increased to a mere dozen. Today, we have found uses for all 90-odd of them, and some are very rare. Neodymium and gallium, for instance, are found in iron ore, but there is 1200 times less neodymium and up to 2650 times less gallium than there is iron.

Zipping from an abandoned mine in the Mojave desert to the toxic lakes and cancer-afflicted areas of Baotou in China, Pitron weighs the awful price of refining the materials, ably blending investigative journalism with insights from science, politics and business.

There are two sides to Pitron’s story, woven seamlessly together. First, there is the economic story of how China worked to dominate the energy and digital transition. It now controls 95 per cent of the rare earth metals market, making between 80 and 90 per cent of the batteries for electric vehicles, says Pitron, and more than half the magnets in wind turbines and electric motors.

Then there is the ecological story of the lengths China took to succeed. Today, 10 per cent of its arable land is contaminated by heavy metals, 80 per cent of its groundwater isn’t fit for consumption and air pollution contributes to around 1.6 million deaths a year there, according to Pitron (a recent paper in The Lancet says 1.24 million deaths in China a year are attributable to air pollution – but let’s not quibble).

China freely entered into this Faustian bargain. Yet it wouldn’t have been possible had the Western world not outsourced its own industrial activities, creating a planet divided, as Pitron memorably describes it, “between the dirty and those who pretend to be clean”.

The West’s comeuppance is at hand, as its manufacturers, starved of rare metals, must take their technologies to China. It should have seen how its reliance on Chinese raw materials would quickly morph into a dependence on China for the technologies of the energy and digital transition.

By 2040, in our pursuit of ever-greater connectivity and a cleaner atmosphere, we will need to mine three times more rare earth metals, five times more tellurium, 12 times more cobalt and 16 times more lithium than we do now. China’s ecological ruination and global technological dominance advance in lockstep, unstoppably, unless the West and others start to mine for rare metals in Brazil, the US, Russia, Turkey, South Africa, Thailand and Pitron’s native France.
by meihao1125 at 11-26-2021, 12:35 AM
What is the Best Drill Bit Material
Drill bits are a common type of cutting tool used to create holes with a circular cross-section from the objects through removing excess materials, come in different drill bits sizes for various needs. What are drill bits made of? In this article, let’s explore the different types of drill bit materials.

Drill Bit Material Types & Coating - Types of Drill Bits
1. Carbon Steel Drill Bit

– Low carbon steel: this is the cheapest option for making a drill bit, due to their poor tempers, low carbon steel drill bits are usually used for drilling softwood and some plastics, and require to be sharpened often to extend the lifespan.

– High carbon steel: a better material than low carbon steel, high carbon steel drill bit can keep their shape and effectiveness longer, so it can be used to cut stronger materials, like hardwood and soft metals.

2. High Speed Steel Drill Bit

Compared with carbon steel bits, high-speed steel drill bit is a more popular choice on the market now. HSS is a special type of carbon steel, maintaining structural integrity while bearing high temperature is a marking advantage of the HSS drill bit, what’s more, high speed steel bit has higher wear resistance and hardness, it can also work well at a normal temperature. HSS drill bits are suitable for most of the wood and metal drilling process, including CNC drilling. Titanium nitride and other types of coatings can be applied on the HSS tool to increase lubricity and reduce friction.

3. Titanium Coated Drill Bit

Titanium is not only a popular aerospace and medical material, but also a versatile drill bit coating material, which can make the drill bit last longer. Due to its high corrosion resistance, good fatigue limit, heat limit, relatively light weight, and longer service life, titanium coated drill bit is perfect for repetitive mass production of drilling into steel, iron, wood, plastic and various surfaces, it allows a faster RPM and shorter cycle time. The most common types of titanium coatings are Titanium Nitride (TiN), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAN) and Titanium Carbon Nitride (TiCN). TiAN and TiCN are considered superior to TiN as they can increase the lifespan to a considerable degree. The drawback of drill bit coating is that once the tooling becomes blunt, it can’t be sharpened to avoid the coating material being worn away.

4. Cobalt Drill Bit

Cobalt is another type of coating for the drill, cobalt drill bit is used for cutting materials that HSS bit can’t, such as stainless steel and other difficult materials, it can retain hardness at much higher temperatures than HSS and not affected by extremely high heat. But cobalt is a too brittle coating.

5. Carbide-Tipped Drill Bit

Carbide-Tipped drill bit is very hard, easy to dissipate heat and can hold an edge longer than other type bits. Similar to the cobalt drill bit, it’s very brittle as well and maybe broken up in improper use. Carbide bits are applicable for drilling fiberglass reinforced plastic and nonferrous heavy metals.

6. Diamond Drill Bit

Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is one of the hardest drill bit material, which can be used on the toughest materials, such as glass and ceramic. Actually, diamond tool generally used to grind away material on a micro level, it can last up 20 times as long as a bare tungsten carbide tool, but it also cost much higher than any other options. And diamond bits react negatively when work with ferrous materials like hot steel.

Drill Bit Material Comparison - What is Best Drill Bit Material?
The material is a major factor for the drill bit selection, because it also affects the price, properties and service life. Are you wondering what is the best drill bit material for metal, wood, titanium, or steel? Here we’ll compare some materials.

1. Cobalt vs Carbide, which drill bit to choose?

– Price: cobalt drill bits are cheaper than carbide bits.

– Properties: carbide bits can resist more temperature than cobalt and HSS.

– Cutting speed: carbide > cobalt

– Application: cobalt bit can drill stainless and hardened steel, carbide bits are widely used for drilling nonferrous heavy metals, cast iron and abrasive materials.

2. Cobalt vs Titanium, which drill bit is better?

– Composition: titanium bits are made of carbon steel or high speed steel with TiN, TiAN or TiCN coating, cobalt bits are HSS bits with cobalt in alloy.

– Application: titanium coated drill bits can make the tool last longer and reduce temperature when cutting plastic and wood, the cobalt bits are intended for stainless steel and hardened alloy steel.

3. HSS vs Cobalt, what’s the difference?

– Price: in general, HSS is cheaper.

– Properties: cobalt bit has higher strength and wear resistance, however, it’s more brittle than HSS as well.

– Application: high-speed drill bits are suitable for drilling plastic, wood and mild steel, cobalt, which is the option for drilling tough materials, it also can do the work what HSS bit does.

In metal fabrication and manufacturing operations, various tools use cutting wheels to cut material from a workpiece.

What is a cutting wheel? Cutting wheels, or cut-off wheels, differ from grinding wheels in their function and structure. Where grinding wheels use an abrasive to grind large pieces of material off a workpiece from a shallow angle, cutting wheels typically make narrow, precise cuts at 90-degree angles. Consequently, cutting wheels are often thinner than grinding wheels — though they do not have the lateral strength required for side grinding, their minimal thickness makes them better for clean, accurate cuts.

Weiler Abrasives offers several cutting wheels for different applications. We provide everything from 1-millimeter cutting wheels to extended-diameter wheels for larger cuts. This guide to cutting wheel covers the differences between various types of cutting wheels and explains how to choose the right wheel for a given application.

How to Use a Hole Saw
Cutting a perfect circle in wood doesn't need to be difficult! There are numerous ways to accomplish this task, depending on the tools you have in your garage. The easiest one to use is a circle shaped saw, named simply, a hole saw.

I'll explain the parts of the hole saw as well as some techniques for using them. By the end of this article, you should feel confident wielding this tool on your next project.

Spade bits are useful for projects where you need a small hole drilled quickly, like when you're running wiring through a stud wall. They're the cheapest option of the three, but they have some downsides.

First, the spade bit can be hard to use near the edge of a board. They also don't make the cleanest hole and tend to tear out. In general, this type of a bit is best for rough construction rather than a fine woodworking project.

A hole saw makes both a hole and a round wooden disc with a thin serrated blade around a central drill bit.

Hole saws can be attached to a regular cordless drill or a drill press. There are many types and sizes, which can be used for cutting wood, concrete, tile, and even metal.

How can this tool help you? Here are some common projects you might need a hole saw for:

Doorknob and light fixture hardware - Door knobs and light fixtures require a precise hole for proper placement. Most other methods for cutting a circle won't work on a door or ceiling, so a hole saw will be a great help.

Plumbing and ductwork - Hole saws can cut more than just wood. You can use one when installing ductwork, or to hook up a rain barrel to your downspout.

Crafts - Don't struggle with lopsided circles made with a jigsaw! It's much easier create the hole in a cornhole board, or to make giant Lego dots on the side of a DIY Lego table with a hole saw instead.

Use a spade bit instead of a hole saw to bore up to 1 ?" holes in wood when you don't need the plug and don't mind the rough cut edges. Spade bits have two sharp edges with a point in the center. As the bit spins, the edges shave out the wood.

Spade bits are useful for projects where you need a small hole drilled quickly, like when you're running wiring through a stud wall. They're the cheapest option of the three, but they have some downsides.

First, the spade bit can be hard to use near the edge of a board. They also don't make the cleanest hole and tend to tear out. In general, this type of a bit is best for rough construction rather than a fine woodworking project.

Tips to Choose the Perfect Concrete Hole Saw
Do you own a concrete table top, or foundation that you have set along the bathroom or room surface at your home? Need to drill through it to create a vent or for some kind of fixture? You need the right hole saw that can fit the shape of your drill and make itself comfortable in your home. Getting the perfect concrete hole saw needs a little choosing before buying.

Why Hole Saw
Hole saws are supposed to be slower than a boring bit that apparently does the same work of drilling into your concrete. But while boring bits are a bit expensive, hole saws are available easily at a cheaper rates. The 3 inch concrete hole saw would work perfectly with the 3/8” home drill that you use to drill into the concrete. This is probably why most homes prefer hole saw to drill their concrete settings.

Know the Hole Saw
When you plan to dig a bigger hole in the concrete to set up your plumbing stations or probably just want some work done on your concrete, you should use a hole saw. It is a steel cylinder which has a saw tooth at the top edge. This saw tooth cuts into the concrete basing out exactly the shape that you desire.

Choosing the Hole Saw
It is very important to choose the perfect hole saw to drill your concrete. You can get a carbon steel hole saw at a perfectly cheap rate. This is generally used to cut wood though. Your bimetal hole saw is practically used to cut both wood and metal. But when you are looking to cut through concrete, you need to think of buying a diamond or carborundum grit 3 inch hole saw. This will cut through the concrete perfectly.

Using the Hole Saw
When you are working on concrete with concrete hole saw, here’s how you do it. You should draw a huge circle around the area you are looking to drill. Now begin drilling with your hammer drill; you need to punch holes in here. Once you are done with that, you can clean the whole setup with a side grinder or a diamond blade. You can use the spline shafted with the hole saw to do the whole drilling for you. Make sure you use a 2 and half inch spline for the drilling purpose. This will blend in easily.

Breaking In Your Diamond Saw Blade
One key to ensuring a long life and ease of use for diamond saw blade is knowing how to properly prepare them for use.

First, make several cuts through a soft abrasive material, such as a common red brick.

To start a saw cut on lapidary material, run the saw blade at operating speed and slowly feed your stone into the spinning blade. Watch the initial cut to ensure a straight feed. If the cut isn’t straight, the blade will deflect at the point of contact, producing an uneven cut.

As soon as you notice the blade deflecting, stop the saw, shift the stone slightly and start the process again. If you don’t correct the process immediately and continue to cut, the blade will be dished by the time you finish the cut. If this happens, the blade will require repair or replacement.

As a professional manufacturer, we offers a variety of lapidary equipment and supplies for jewelers and stone cutters.
by t5ljwl3f at 11-25-2021, 05:27 AM
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The spikeless Stan Smith is a part of Adidas Black Friday 2021 family, with more than 50 percent of the shoe’s upper being made from high-performance recycled materials. The rubber outsole has lugs on the bottom to provide traction, but the shoe can definitely be worn off the course as well as on it.The white kiltie is a nod to tradition, and it holds a gold-colored ball marker that features Adidas’ logo, but the kiltie can be removed.

The On Sale release was followed shortly with a waterproof version of the shoe in a simple design, a little more true to the original Stan Smith street shoe look. The primarily white shoe had green details at the heel and on the traction-covered sole. The cow-print Ryder Cup special edition drop is the third iteration of the golf shoe, with more expected to come.

The Adidas Cyber Monday 2021 Sale arrives with a rubber spikeless outsole paired with a die-cut PU sock liner and supplementary support in the midsole. The all-white upper remains the same while a polka dot cow print wraps the midsole, contrasted by a burst of pink on the bottom. The sock line extends the spotted-print motif, and the tongue is stamped with “Dairyland Golf Club” on the very top, paying homage to Wisconsin’s “America’s Dairyland” nickname. The shoe textile is constructed with recycled textile and will keep your feet dry with its impermeable protection.

Taking inspiration from Wisconsin’s Adidas Stan Smith Cloud White/Active Purple nickname, the limited-edition sneaker features cow prints throughout.The white upper is crafted with recycled materials accompanied by a die-cut PU sock liner. The design is accentuated with cow-printed midsoles, which are paired with rubber spikeless outsoles in bright pink. The tongue and insole are printed with the “Dairyland Golf Club” motif.
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